The idea of creating a bogland reserve in Polesie belongs to the Polish academician V. Schafer. For these purposes, in the 20-30s of the twentieth century, he suggested the largest in Europe and perfectly preserved Olmansky swamp massif, located in the interfluve of Goryn and Stviga. At the same time, the Polish bogland scientist S. Kulchinsky conducted research on the boglands of the western part of Polesie and published the results in the monograph "Peatlands of Polesie" in 1939. So, by the beginning of the 40s, the scientific basis for the creation of the reserve was laid. 
In 1957/1958 this idea was adopted by academician N.V. Smolsky who is the director of the Central Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR, who instructed L.P.Smolyak, an employee of the botanical garden (a bogland scientist dealing with problems of forest reclamation) to substantiate the creation of a bogland reserve. Justification was carried out in 1961. The Pripyat State Landscape-Hydrological Reserve was founded on June 3, 1969 (Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the BSSR N200 dated 06/03/1969,"On the organisation of the Pripyat State Landscape-Hydrological Reserve") on an area of 61.5 hectares within the Ministry of Forestry. 
Then it was reassigned to the State Committee on Ecology of the BSSR, the Administrative Department of the Council of Ministers of Belarus. In August 1994, the reserve with an area of 65,050 hectares was transferred to the Office of the President of the Republic of Belarus. In 1995, the Experimental Forestry Hunting Economy (ELOKH) "Lyaskovichi" was established at the reserve. 
In 1996, the Pripyat State Landscape and Hydrological Reserve was reorganised into the Pripyatsky National Park.
In 1998, the Museum of Nature began to function.